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Technology Trends in 2018 & Beyond!

Technology Trends in 2018 –

Hottest Trends in Technology in 2018! – As this content is being written,

the keywords in this technology field are both

bitcoin and blockchain technology”, which will be our focus as well.

Yes, Get Access! – No Thanks!

The next question if you do have an interest in software and

technology, do you have what it takes to become a bitcoin developer?


Professional Duties?

Read below the usual duties of this profession to see if you can fit yourself

into this mold, or just outsource the work. This reading is for those who

want to get into the blockchain game, regardless if you actually

  • design, 
  • create 
  • and developed a single piece of technology.


Examination Profile?

Before we start examining the technology, development, and

application of blockchain lets discuss how blockchain became

a needed development as digital currency increased in usage.


What is Digital Currency?

Great question, since this is the reason for the digital currency platform

in the first place. The blockchain is dependent on some form of electronic or digital

currency to operate. So, what exactly is this digital currency anyways?

Bitcoin, the currency in question, is called cryptocurrency.

This digital currency was conceptualized back in 2009.

The person who was given credit for this development was Satoshi Nakamoto.


Decentralized Currency?

This digital currency was decentralized, meaning there was no one central

power overseeing the digital transaction process. This means, the

digital currency work in a number of methods, such as in peer

to peer system If you are interested in becoming a bitcoin developer,

it is important to understand the background or history of blockchain first.


What is Blockchain, and its Function?

So, now we head to the discussion of blockchain technology.

If you are unfamiliar with this concept, you are not alone.

As stated through eweek, many business owners and others,

are unfamiliar with the actual meaning of the definition.

So, the blockchain is where each of the blocks in the chain,

contain data of value. This data excludes any central supervision,

however, which makes an attractive prospect. This is true, regardless if

your territory is in the United States or not. This is because, this new

system of currency, is reaching outside of the United States,

and shows no limits to boundaries or borders.


Technology Trends and Barriers?

This is important if this technology is to transcend barriers

and untouched surroundings in the technology field.

This technology is secure and immutable, which are important

components for continued advancement and development.


Structure of Technology? – Blockchain?

The blockchain will use 2 important data structures, which are categorized as:

  • Pointers 
  • Linked Lists


So, what are pointers and linked lists?

This is a significant lead off into technology development, so let’s begin.


What are Pointers? – Blockchain Development

Pointers, in the world of the blockchain, are considered variables in

computer programming. This is the process where information is

stored in the address of another variable. This is usually done

with normal variables in the language programming storage bin.

For example: Eg. int a = 10, means that there is a variable “a” which stores integer values. In this case, it is storing an integer value which is 10. This is a normal variable.


Purpose Information?

Pointers, do not store the values of information, rather, stored

addresses of other variables are included and stored. These pointers,

literally point towards the location of other variables, thus the reason for its definition.


What are Link Lists?

The next group to identify and discuss is linked lists.

These linked lists are one of the most important items you will find

in your data structure. Linked List will come in two different types:

  • Singly linked list 
  • Doubly linked list


Singly versus Doubly Linked Lists

The singly linked list has already been described in the above piece, however,

the doubly linked list has not. The difference between the two is doubly

linked list, reference two instead of the one. This means that one exists next

to the node while the other is connected to the previous node.

Think of it as a bridge connecting the nodes together.

Keep in mind, that each element or also known as a node,

will be comprised of two items.

  • Data 
  • Reference to the next node


Empirical Evidence of Technological Development

Description from the Dictionary of Algorithms and Data Structures:


Open Data Structures – Linked Lists 

Patent for the idea of having nodes which are in several linked lists simultaneously

Technology and Node Computation? – This means, that the last node is

null due to its reference position. The beginning or entry point, of the link

list, is called as the head of the list. This does not mean that the head

is a separate node, but rather about the first. If your list is empty,

then the head would be considered null. The link base has a dynamic data

structure, which should be noted when in the development stages.


Unknown Application?

If there is an application that has an unknown number

of objects, this link must be connected first.

Disadvantages of Linked – Lists With every benefit or positive, must come to

a list of disadvantages. This helps to improve future programs and studies.

One disadvantage to discuss, is the link list against an array.

That is, it does not allow for direct access the individual elements

in the structure. So, if you want to access a specific item,

then you would have to start at the head and follow the references

until you get back.


Linked Applications – Overview?

Yes, there exist, more disadvantages that come with the type of linked application.

This means, that if a linked list, utilizes more memory compared

to an array, then this can create for error.

More Disadvantages: Memory increase for arrays due to storage use

Nodes in a linked list, must in order from start.

This is because they are inherently sequential.


Storage Nodes?

The storage of nodes is in contiguously.

This increases the period of time required to access individual elements.

This access is what is of discussion. In addition, nodes are stored as incongruously.

This increases the time period to access individual element within the list,

which is spelled out in CPU Cache. There also exist difficulties in

the linked lists when it comes to reverse traversing.

What does all this mean? It means, there are other ways

to consume this technology progress for allocating space for the back pointer.


  • References:
    Juan, Angel (2006). “Ch20 –Data Structures; ID06 – PROGRAMMING with JAVA (slide part of the book ‘Big Java’, by CayS. Horstmann)” (PDF). p. 3. Black, Paul E. (2004-08-16). Pieterse, Vreda; Black, Paul E., eds. “linked list”. Dictionary of Algorithms and Data Structures. National Institute of Standards and Technology. Retrieved 2004-12-14. Antonakos, James L.; Mansfield, Kenneth C., Jr. (1999). Practical Data Structures Using C/C++. Prentice-Hall. pp. 165–190. ISBN 0-13-280843-9.
    Collins, William J. (2005) [2002]. Data Structures and the Java Collections Framework. New York: McGraw Hill. pp. 239–303. ISBN 0-07-282379-8.


Search Speed Increase?

To find a specific element in a link list, no matter is sorted or not,

will require with most cases, a linear search. This is one of the primary disadvantages

of the linked lists over the data structure. So, now that you see the disadvantages

of this data structure and technology, how do you speed up the search?

This is a great question since it leads us into the two very simple ways to

improve search time, a very important component to conversion.


Conversion Component?

The first way is through a simple heuristic. This will help to decrease the

average search time. This is because, it is the move to front heuristic,

that moves an element from the beginning of the list, once retrieved

in the system. This scheme is good for creating simple caches.

This process will ensure that the most recently used items,

will also be the fastest to discover.


Indexing for Speed Improvement?

Yes, this is another common approach that many site managers and webmasters do.

This is called index. This is a linked list using, efficient external data structure.

As an example, you can build a multi-color plant or a hash table,

whose elements are considered in the linked list nodes.

There can be multiple type indexes, but few that can be built

on a single list. The shortcoming in this application is,

these indexes may need to be updated.


Updates and Progression?

Usually, these updates are required each time a node is added or

removed, as an example. This can also happen before the index is ever used again.

What is Random Access Lists? – This is a random-access list.

It is a list with support for a fast and random profile access.

This access is to read or modify any element in the list.

One such implementation is considered a skew binary random-access list.

This is a mouthful, but it means that it allows worst case scenario, with the constant time.


Implementation of Access Lists?

Random access lists have an option for implementation.

This implementation will come through with persistent data structures.

This type of list can be observed as immutable. So, this linked lists

will support the same, for head and tail operations. A simple extension

can be utilized to access this mini list if need be. This is to provide any

additional operation that can yield the minimum element in the entire

list in constant time. This is very promising since this is

without the need of mutation complexities.


Related Data Structures?

Stacks and Queues are both often implemented using linked lists.

This is because it will restrict the type of operations it supports.

What is a Skip List? – This is an inked list that has layers of pointers.

This is for easy access to large amounts of data. This data includes

information that shows it will continue its process until it hits the bottom

layer. The bottom layer is the actual list of course.


  • Reference List for Article Piece
    Sedgewick, Robert (1998). Algorithms in C. Addison Wesley. pp. 90–109. ISBN 0-201-314525. Shaffer, Clifford A. (1998). A Practical Introduction to Data Structures and Algorithm Analysis. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. pp. 77–102. ISBN 0-13-660911-2. Wilkes, Maurice Vincent (1964). “An Experiment with a Self-compiling Compiler for a Simple List-Processing Language”. Annual Review in Automatic Programming. Pergamon Press. 4 (1): 1. doi:10.1016/0066-4138(64)90013-8. Wilkes, Maurice Vincent (1964). “Lists and Why They are Useful”. Proceeds of the ACM National Conference, Philadelphia 1964. ACM (P–64): F1–1.
    Shanmugasundaram, Kulesh (2005-04-04). “Linux Kernel Linked List Explained”. Retrieved 2009-09-21.


Concluding Thoughts:

The application of processing and developing new components on old

technology are underway. This is because technology has become

more flexible and easier to learn and to find support. This is important

information to learn and promote. Many corporations are looking for

programmers in this specialty group. So, no matter if you learn the

backend process of website and computing, it is important that you

first understand the terminology and graphs. This will help shape a

better future platform for technology and computer

programming, beyond your business walls!

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